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28座煉爐填補云南冶金史空白
2020-01-11 18:45   来源:  www.oceanofgameso.com   评论:0 点击:

28座煉爐填補云南冶金史空白青铜器在中华文明尤其是人们的生产、生活中占据重要地位,矿冶技术、铸造技术反

青铜器在中华文明尤其是人们的生产、生活中占据重要地位,矿冶技术、铸造技术反映了一个时代的文明程度,对后世研究青铜文化体系以及文明发展进程具有重要意义。

Bronze ware occupies an important position in the production and life of chinese civilization, especially people. Mining and metallurgy technology and casting technology reflect the civilization degree of an era, which is of great significance to the later study of bronze culture system and civilization development process.

2019年初,经国家文物局审批,由云南省文物考古研究所、四川大学历史文化学院等组成的联合考古队从10月开始,对云南省金平苗族瑶族傣族自治县的云南春秋战国古矿冶炼遗址——龙脖河遗址展开了近两个月的勘探、发掘工作,其考古成果对研究我国西南地区青铜时代的矿冶、铸造技术等提供了依据。

In early 2019, with the approval of the State Bureau of Cultural Relics, a joint archaeological team composed of the Institute of Cultural Relics of Yunnan Province and the Institute of History and Culture of Sichuan University began in October to explore and excavate the site of the ancient ore smelting in the Spring and Autumn and Autumn Period of the Yao nationality of the Miao people of Yunnan Province - the Longjiaohe site - for nearly two months.

据云南省文物考古研究所工作人员介绍,龙脖河遗址是云南省迄今发现的年代最早、保存完整、规模最大的,集采掘、冶炼于一体的冶铜遗址群。龙脖河为红河支流,区域内蕴藏有丰富的矿产资源,包括铜矿、锡矿、锑矿、镍矿、金矿、铅矿、锌矿等,其中铜矿藏量仅次于云南东川。龙脖河遗址位于金平县猛桥乡卡房村龙脖河矿区和红河的交汇区,于2004年由云南省文物考古研究所在进行新街—河口公路考古工作时发现。

According to the staff of the Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology of Yunnan Province, the Longjiaohe site is the earliest, complete and largest metallurgical copper site group found in Yunnan Province so far, which integrates mining and smelting. Longji River is a tributary of the Red River, the region contains rich mineral resources, including copper, tin, antimony, nickel, gold, lead, zinc ore, among which copper deposits are second only to Dongchuan, Yunnan. Located in the intersection of the Longjihe mining area and the Red River in Kafang Village, Mengqiao Township, Jinping County, the site was discovered in 2004 by the Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology of Yunnan Province during archaeological work on the Xinjie-hekou Highway.

据悉,早在2004年至2017年,云南省文物考古研究所、红河哈尼族彝族自治州文物管理所和金平县文物管理所等单位就持续在该区域进行考古调勘工作。截至2018年底,在遗址范围内发现与冶炼相关的区域10个、古矿洞点1个、铜器出土点1个(疑为墓地),冶炼点从红河谷底到石家寨所处的整个山梁均有分布。

It is reported that as early as 2004 to 2017, Yunnan Provincial Institute of Cultural relics and Archaeology, Honghe Hani Yi Autonomous Prefecture Cultural relics Management Institute and Jinping County Cultural Heritage Management Institute and other units continued to carry out archaeological survey work in the area. By the end of 2018,10 areas related to smelting,1 ancient ore cave site and 1 copper unearthed site (suspected graveyard) had been found in the site, and the whole mountain beam from the valley bottom of the Red River to Shijiazhai was distributed.

2019年,对龙脖河遗址再次进行勘探、发掘,此次涉及面积500平方米,布置探方10个。发现各类遗迹32个,包括作坊遗迹1处、灰坑3个、炼炉28座。出土各类器物216件(套),包括陶器、石器等。陶器有陶罐口沿、器底、陶防轮、陶支脚、陶范等,陶器都为夹砂陶,烧陶温度不高,均为手制,陶色以灰褐色、红褐色为主,少量黑褐色,大部分有纹饰,包括绳纹、刻划纹、弦纹以及多种组合纹饰等,仅有一部分陶片为素面。石器有石范、石锤、石拍、研磨石、凹石等。此外,收集的大量各类陶片、铜矿炼渣等分别送往美国贝塔分析实验室、北京大学和南京大学相关实验室进行检测分析。

In 2019, the Longji River site was again explored and excavated, this time involving an area of 500 square meters, the layout of 10 exploration. All kinds of ruins were found 32, including workshop remains 1, ash pit 3, furnace 28. 216 pieces (sets) of various types of objects unearthed, including pottery, stone tools, etc. The pottery has the edge of the pot mouth, the bottom of the pottery, the pottery guard wheel, the foot of the pottery, the pottery fan, and so on. The pottery has a low temperature and is hand-made. The pottery is mainly grayish-brown and reddish-brown, with a small amount of dark brown color. Most of the pottery have ornaments, including rope lines, cut lines, string lines and multiple combinations of ornaments. Stone tools have stone fan, stone hammer, stone pat, grinding stone, concave stone, etc. In addition, the collection of a large number of various types of pottery, copper smelting slag and so on sent to the United States Beta Analysis Laboratory, Peking University and Nanjing University related laboratories for testing and analysis.

此次发掘发现的炼炉28座,是云南地区首次正式考古发掘发现的早期冶炼炉,填补了云南冶金史的空白,意义重大。据介绍,大部分炼炉依山而建,方向各不相同。除部分遭到破坏的以外,均开口于早期地层。炼炉结构一般保存较好,炉壁四周的红烧土结节尚存,通道(鼓风口)、炉膛、炉腰、出渣口(金门)、炉衬等设施具备,部分炼炉周边还发现附属设施,如工作台面、柱洞等。炼炉形制多样,根据结构可分为碗式炉和“上腔下膛”的“8”字形炉等。炼炉内堆积一般有陶片、红烧土块、木炭和大量炼渣。相关负责人介绍,保存如此完好的炼炉,在冶金考古领域不多见。

The discovery of 28 smelting furnaces, the first official archaeological excavation in yunnan found the early smelting furnace, filled the gap in the history of yunnan metallurgy, significant. According to the introduction, the majority of furnaces built according to the mountain, the direction is different. Except for those partially damaged, they all open in the early formations. The structure of the furnace is generally well preserved, the red earth junction around the furnace wall is still in existence, the passage (blast port), the furnace, the furnace waist, the slag outlet (golden gate), the furnace lining and other facilities are available, and some of the auxiliary facilities around the furnace are also found, such as working table, column hole and so on. The furnace shape is diverse, according to the structure can be divided into bowl furnace and \"upper cavity and lower chamber\" of the \"8\" zigzag furnace and so on. Generally, there are pottery, red clay, charcoal and a lot of slag. Relevant responsible person introduces, the furnace that preserves so intact, is rare in metallurgical archaeology domain.

在前期的调勘中,云南省文物考古研究所曾将3号区域采集的两个炭样(剖面炼炉内)送往美国贝塔实验室进行测年。两个炭样的测年结果相近,均为距今约2450年,也就是春秋晚期至战国早期。考古人员推测,最迟在秦汉时期,我国先民就已认识并开始开发利用龙脖河流域的金属矿产资源了。在一个山梁发现10多处区域,说明当时的冶炼规模已经相当可观了。从遗址区发现的古矿洞、铜矿石、炼炉、炼渣以及陶石范等来看,可以推测,龙脖河遗址的功能性质是一处集开采、冶炼、铸造为一体的早期矿冶遗址。

In the previous survey, the institute of archaeology in yunnan province sent two charcoal samples collected in area 3(section furnace) to the beta laboratory in the united states for dating. The results of the two carbon samples are similar, both about 2450 years ago, that is, the late spring and autumn to the early warring States. Archaeologists speculated that during the Qin and Han dynasties at the latest, the ancestors of our country knew and began to exploit and utilize the metallic mineral resources of the Longji River Basin. More than 10 areas were found in a mountain beam, indicating that the scale of smelting was already considerable. From the ancient ore cave, copper ore, furnace, slag and Tao Shi Fan found in the site area, it can be speculated that the functional nature of the Longjihe site is an early mining and metallurgy site which integrates mining, smelting and casting.

四川大学历史文化学院副院长、教授李映福介绍,该遗址曾开展过多次考古调查,对遗址的年代、分布范围有了初步了解。此次系统全面的科学发掘,对研究我国西南地区和东南亚的青铜冶炼技术类型、冶金技术交流与传播有着十分重要的学术意义。

Li Yingfu, vice president and professor of the School of History and Culture at Sichuan University, said the site had carried out many archaeological investigations and had a preliminary understanding of the age and distribution of the site. This systematic and comprehensive scientific excavation is of great academic significance to the study of bronze smelting technology types, metallurgical technology exchange and dissemination in southwest and Southeast Asia.

据介绍,考古工作队在发掘前制定了详细的工作计划、建立了各项管理制度;发掘中,全程利用数字平台、RTK数据采集、三维建模及航拍等最新技术。同时,对现场出土的炼渣、陶片进行统计数据分析,土样进行浮选,发现的遗存特别是炼炉等现场进行初步的技术处理保护……

According to the report, the archaeological task force worked out a detailed work plan and established various management systems before the excavation. At the same time, the site unearthed slag, pottery for statistical data analysis, soil samples flotation, found remains, especially the furnace site for preliminary technical treatment protection.

云南考古研究所基于遗址的重要性和发展战略,以龙脖河矿冶遗址为依托,计划对此区域开展长期、系统的考古工作,并制定了3步走设想。目前发现的文物点均位于龙脖河矿带最南段,而其矿带还有大面积的区域未涉及,因此,第一步将以目前的工作成果和工作经验为基础,开展整个矿带的考古调勘工作。以寻找冶炼点为中心,摸清矿带内包括冶炼点、与冶炼相关的居住、墓葬等各类遗迹。这一阶段,可根据工作和研究的需要对某些点进行发掘,以获取科学和完整的矿冶技术、铸造相关文化和历史信息。第二步将开展龙脖河矿冶遗址影响范围内的考古调勘,这一阶段亦可根据需要对其影响范围内的某些点进行发掘,并整合调勘结果和之前的工作成果,建构区域性的文化框架体系。第三步将会把工作面拓展至遗址影响范围的境外地区(越南),开展国际交流与合作,系统性地将遗址范围内有可能涉及的广度和深度进行勘探发掘,为我国西南地区青铜时代的矿冶技术发展历史研究提供更可靠的依据。(记者肖依群通讯员杨国勤)

Based on the importance and development strategy of the site, yunnan archaeological institute plans to carry out long-term and systematic archaeological work in this area, and formulates a three-step plan. At present, the sites are located in the southernmost section of the Longjiaohe Mine, and there are a large area of the belt that is not involved. Therefore, the first step will be to carry out the archaeological survey of the whole belt based on the current work results and work experience. In order to find the smelting point as the center, find out the mineral belt including the smelting point, and smelting-related residential, burial and other relics. At this stage, certain points can be excavated according to the needs of work and research to obtain scientific and complete mining and metallurgy technology, casting related culture and historical information. The second step will be to carry out the archaeological survey in the influence area of the Longjiaohe ore site. This stage can also excavate some points in the influence area according to the need, and integrate the results of the survey and the previous work to construct a regional cultural framework system. The third step will be to extend the working face to the overseas area of the site (vietnam), to carry out international exchanges and cooperation, to systematically explore the scope and depth of the site, and to provide a more reliable basis for the study of the history of mining and metallurgy technology development in the bronze age of southwestern china. (Reporter Xiao Yiqun Correspondent Yang Guoqin)

推荐阅读致敬改革开放四十年,文化大家讲述亲历一个时代有一个时代的文艺,一个时代有一个时代的精神。《见证人丨致敬改革开放40年·文化大家讲述亲历》邀请改革开放40年以来当代中国最具代表性的文化艺术大家,分享其求艺之路的艺术探索与思想感悟。

Recommended Reading Salutes the Reform and Opening Up for Forty Years, Culture Everybody Tells A Time There is an Age of Literature and Art, An Age There is an Age of Spirit. \"The Witness Paying Tribute to the 40 Years of Reform and Opening-up\" Invites China's most representative cultural and artistic people in the past 40 years to share their artistic exploration and ideological insights.

文脉颂中华·书院@家国人民网文化频道与“文脉颂中华·书院@家国”媒体团一同实地走访六大书院,深入挖掘书院文化中蕴含的丰富哲学思想、人文精神、教化思想、道德理念,探讨书院参与地方及国家文化建设的作用、贡献,为治国理政提供有益启示。

The Culture Channel of the Chinese Academy@Family People's Network and the Media Group of the Chinese Academy@Family Country visited the six colleges on the spot to explore the rich philosophy, humanistic spirit, enlightenment thought and morality contained in the college culture, and to explore the role and contribution of the academy in the local and national cultural construction, so as to provide useful enlightenment for governing the country.


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