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2020-01-11 18:45   来源:  www.oceanofgameso.com   评论:0 点击:



Bronze ware occupies an important position in the production and life of chinese civilization, especially people. Mining and metallurgy technology and casting technology reflect the civilization degree of an era, which is of great significance to the later study of bronze culture system and civilization development process.


In early 2019, with the approval of the State Bureau of Cultural Relics, a joint archaeological team composed of the Institute of Cultural Relics of Yunnan Province and the Institute of History and Culture of Sichuan University began in October to explore and excavate the site of the ancient ore smelting in the Spring and Autumn and Autumn Period of the Yao nationality of the Miao people of Yunnan Province - the Longjiaohe site - for nearly two months.


According to the staff of the Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology of Yunnan Province, the Longjiaohe site is the earliest, complete and largest metallurgical copper site group found in Yunnan Province so far, which integrates mining and smelting. Longji River is a tributary of the Red River, the region contains rich mineral resources, including copper, tin, antimony, nickel, gold, lead, zinc ore, among which copper deposits are second only to Dongchuan, Yunnan. Located in the intersection of the Longjihe mining area and the Red River in Kafang Village, Mengqiao Township, Jinping County, the site was discovered in 2004 by the Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology of Yunnan Province during archaeological work on the Xinjie-hekou Highway.


It is reported that as early as 2004 to 2017, Yunnan Provincial Institute of Cultural relics and Archaeology, Honghe Hani Yi Autonomous Prefecture Cultural relics Management Institute and Jinping County Cultural Heritage Management Institute and other units continued to carry out archaeological survey work in the area. By the end of 2018,10 areas related to smelting,1 ancient ore cave site and 1 copper unearthed site (suspected graveyard) had been found in the site, and the whole mountain beam from the valley bottom of the Red River to Shijiazhai was distributed.


In 2019, the Longji River site was again explored and excavated, this time involving an area of 500 square meters, the layout of 10 exploration. All kinds of ruins were found 32, including workshop remains 1, ash pit 3, furnace 28. 216 pieces (sets) of various types of objects unearthed, including pottery, stone tools, etc. The pottery has the edge of the pot mouth, the bottom of the pottery, the pottery guard wheel, the foot of the pottery, the pottery fan, and so on. The pottery has a low temperature and is hand-made. The pottery is mainly grayish-brown and reddish-brown, with a small amount of dark brown color. Most of the pottery have ornaments, including rope lines, cut lines, string lines and multiple combinations of ornaments. Stone tools have stone fan, stone hammer, stone pat, grinding stone, concave stone, etc. In addition, the collection of a large number of various types of pottery, copper smelting slag and so on sent to the United States Beta Analysis Laboratory, Peking University and Nanjing University related laboratories for testing and analysis.


The discovery of 28 smelting furnaces, the first official archaeological excavation in yunnan found the early smelting furnace, filled the gap in the history of yunnan metallurgy, significant. According to the introduction, the majority of furnaces built according to the mountain, the direction is different. Except for those partially damaged, they all open in the early formations. The structure of the furnace is generally well preserved, the red earth junction around the furnace wall is still in existence, the passage (blast port), the furnace, the furnace waist, the slag outlet (golden gate), the furnace lining and other facilities are available, and some of the auxiliary facilities around the furnace are also found, such as working table, column hole and so on. The furnace shape is diverse, according to the structure can be divided into bowl furnace and \"upper cavity and lower chamber\" of the \"8\" zigzag furnace and so on. Generally, there are pottery, red clay, charcoal and a lot of slag. Relevant responsible person introduces, the furnace that preserves so intact, is rare in metallurgical archaeology domain.


In the previous survey, the institute of archaeology in yunnan province sent two charcoal samples collected in area 3(section furnace) to the beta laboratory in the united states for dating. The results of the two carbon samples are similar, both about 2450 years ago, that is, the late spring and autumn to the early warring States. Archaeologists speculated that during the Qin and Han dynasties at the latest, the ancestors of our country knew and began to exploit and utilize the metallic mineral resources of the Longji River Basin. More than 10 areas were found in a mountain beam, indicating that the scale of smelting was already considerable. From the ancient ore cave, copper ore, furnace, slag and Tao Shi Fan found in the site area, it can be speculated that the functional nature of the Longjihe site is an early mining and metallurgy site which integrates mining, smelting and casting.


Li Yingfu, vice president and professor of the School of History and Culture at Sichuan University, said the site had carried out many archaeological investigations and had a preliminary understanding of the age and distribution of the site. This systematic and comprehensive scientific excavation is of great academic significance to the study of bronze smelting technology types, metallurgical technology exchange and dissemination in southwest and Southeast Asia.


According to the report, the archaeological task force worked out a detailed work plan and established various management systems before the excavation. At the same time, the site unearthed slag, pottery for statistical data analysis, soil samples flotation, found remains, especially the furnace site for preliminary technical treatment protection.


Based on the importance and development strategy of the site, yunnan archaeological institute plans to carry out long-term and systematic archaeological work in this area, and formulates a three-step plan. At present, the sites are located in the southernmost section of the Longjiaohe Mine, and there are a large area of the belt that is not involved. Therefore, the first step will be to carry out the archaeological survey of the whole belt based on the current work results and work experience. In order to find the smelting point as the center, find out the mineral belt including the smelting point, and smelting-related residential, burial and other relics. At this stage, certain points can be excavated according to the needs of work and research to obtain scientific and complete mining and metallurgy technology, casting related culture and historical information. The second step will be to carry out the archaeological survey in the influence area of the Longjiaohe ore site. This stage can also excavate some points in the influence area according to the need, and integrate the results of the survey and the previous work to construct a regional cultural framework system. The third step will be to extend the working face to the overseas area of the site (vietnam), to carry out international exchanges and cooperation, to systematically explore the scope and depth of the site, and to provide a more reliable basis for the study of the history of mining and metallurgy technology development in the bronze age of southwestern china. (Reporter Xiao Yiqun Correspondent Yang Guoqin)


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